First, even antique cable cars were used just to transport cargo. In the Middle Ages the inhabitants of mountainous areas began to cross the gorge in baskets. Such crossings are to this day, for example, in the Himalayas.
Today, in the lens 12, the most terrible, long, mountainous, old and other outstanding cableways world .
Text: Anastasia Novikova, the Forbes
The first of the cable cars in the modern sense was launched in Switzerland in 1866 and brings tourists to the observation deck. In Russia, the cable car debut took place in 1871: it was used to transport timber through the marshland. A real boom in the construction of cableways came in the second half of the XX century, when skiing began to develop actively.
1. The cable car Genting (Malaysia): the fastest
Genting — city of entertainment at an altitude of 2000 meters above sea level. It is called the Las Vegas of Malaysia: here was built 20 luxury hotels, several amusement parks and even the country’s only legal casino.
Genting empire — the brainchild of a Chinese Lim Goh Tong. When he first announced the idea of building a mountain resort, he scoffed at: in the late 1960s, the area was covered with virgin tropical jungle. But Tong persisted, and in 1971 opened the first hotel. Then earned a casino, then knocked in Genting visitors crowd.
In addition to numerous laudatory epithets Genting also boasts the world’s fastest cable car . The velocity of outboard cabins is 6 m / s and 3380 m, Genting separating from the lower station which is in settlement Kuala Cuba Baru, travelers overcome for only 11 minutes.
Much of the route the cable car, which opened February 21, 1997, runs over the jungle, and in cloudless weather with height can be seen scurrying monkeys below.
Fare: 10 Malaysian ringgit ($ 3) to both sides.
2. Cableway Gulmarg (India): the most high
Since 1948, Kashmir is the bone of contention between India and Pakistan. The two countries have more than half a century, divided the disputed territory, which is why the region has long been considered dangerous for tourism.
In recent years, fighting in Jammu and Kashmir have stopped, and the local authorities were able to deal with the development of tourism infrastructure. Today, in the state, there are about a dozen tourist spots, and one of them — Gulmarg — the largest ski resort in the Himalayas.
It was here in 2005, Sonia Gandhi launched the cableway, to this day remains the highest mountain in the world . The first road section starts to operate in the spring 1998 years, and then the maximum lifting height was 3100 m. The second section is allowed to rise to a height of 4114 m.
The total length of the cable car is 5 km away, and capacity — 600 people per hour. By the way, before the opening of the monorail skiers in the mountains raised by helicopters, which made the cost of skiing in all senses of the word transcendental.
Fare: one-time rise — the first phase of 150 rupees ($ 2.7), the second phase — 250 rupees ($ 4.6).
3. Sternensauser (Switzerland) Funicular: the worst
The most unusual ropeway in the world operating in the Swiss resort of Hoch-Ibrig. In order to ride on it, do not need to sit in a booth and a camera at the ready — we must put on the helmet and fasten seat belts. The fact is that cable car passengers Sternensauser move under the weight of his own body. Cableway is a cable stretched between several platforms at a height of 75 m above the ground. By the way, Sternensauser is the longest cable expensive kind in the world .
beginning of the route is located near the upper station of the chairlift and leads down to the station, located in the valley. During the movement of the passenger can reach speeds of 70 to 90 km / h, thereby creating a feeling of free flight. They say that the adrenaline rush during the descent of Sternensauser no less than when jumping with a parachute.
The only downside of the cable way is that you can ride on it only in summer. By descent allowed adults and children who have reached the age of nine, the growth of not less than 130 cm Allowable weight passenger -. 30 to 125 kg.
Fare: 70 Swiss francs.
4. The cable car to Sentosa Island (Singapore): is the glass
25 km south of Singapore is the island of Sentosa, and say that the future of the state began to located a small fishing village here. Sentosa today — it’s insular Asian Disneyland tourist attraction and a favorite vacation spot Singaporeans themselves. There is an amusement park, oceanarium, and three kilometers of white beaches.
Can get to Sentosa by public transport or even on foot, but most visitors choose stretched over the strait cableway. About the construction of its Singapore government conceived in 1968, and four years later it was launched. Initially, the cable car was 43 booths. Today, the number has reached 81, the local cable car is the first in the world, where they began to walk the cabin, entirely made of glass.
But this was not enough for Singaporeans. For monorail, leading to Sentosa Island, they have made the definition of «first jewelry» in 2010, it was launched seven VIP-rooms, roof and glass beads are decorated with crystals Swarovski. Is it any wonder that the cable car — one of the most expensive ways to get to Sentosa.
The fare is 26 Singapore dollars ($ 18.6) on both sides.
5. Tatev ropeway (Armenia): longest
October 16, 2010 the cable car was launched in Armenia, called «Wings of Tatev». And just seven days later it brought in the Guinness Book of Records as the longest in the world .
The first passenger cable car, stretching for 5.7 km above the gorge of the river Vorotan, became the President of Armenia Serzh Sargsyan, Catholicos of All Armenians Garegin II, and one child out of the next seven villages.
Construction of the monorail was conceived in 2009 as one of the stages of the program «Tatev Revival» — a medieval monastery of IX century. In 1390 it was established by the University, where he taught both theological and secular subjects. In 1931 the monastery was badly damaged by the earthquake, and restoration work is not finished yet.
Until there was a cable car to get to Tatev was only possible on the drive along the cliff at an angle of 45 ° steep serpentine, which in winter also often blurred. But now tourists and locals can visit Tatev year round. Lockers move at a speed of 37 km / h and the distance to overcome convent just 11 minutes 25 seconds.
Fare: for local residents — free of charge, to tourists — € 6.
6. Cableway Mishor — Ai-Petri (Crimea): the longest unsupported span
Translated from the Turkish word «mountain pasture» means mountain plateau. In the past, shepherds grazed their cattle here, and in more ancient times yaylam magical significance attached to them and set the stone idols. Today the word «mountain pasture» in the Russian language is most often used in the Crimea, where one of the most famous is the Ai-Petri Yayla. You can reach it on a cable car Miskhor — Ai-Petri, for at that time for the increase — and it lasts about 15 minutes — the tourists have time to enjoy the beautiful panorama of the South-Eastern coast of Crimea — Sudak to Foros.
Construction of the monorail was spread over 20 years. her departure was given in 1987, and to the public visiting it opened a year later.
But the cable car Miskhor — Ai-Petri is considered unique. Between its middle and upper stretches stations entered in the Guinness Book of Records the longest unsupported span in Europe : at two kilometers there is no intermediate towers.
Fare: 120 hryvnia ($ 15) in both directions.
7. lift Grenoble (France): the world’s first city
Writer Henri Marie Beyle, better known by his pen name Stendhal, wrote about his hometown of Grenoble, that each street ends the mountain. On the slope of one of them and is the most famous local landmark — the Bastille.
At the beginning of the XX century the power of Grenoble thinking about how to improve access to the Bastille and at the same time ensure that the capital of the French Alps tourist highlight. Thus was born the idea of building a cable car that forever changed the face of Grenoble.
September 29, 1934 a loud beep informed the citizens about the start of the monorail, which was the first urban cable car in the world . Very quickly, like the Eiffel Tower in Paris, it has evolved into a symbol of Grenoble, which remains to this day.
The first passenger cabins were quite traditional: the big «cars», holds up to 21 passengers. But in 1976 they were replaced by an engineer Denny creissels small six-spherical Plexiglas cubicles that very soon dubbed the bubbles, and cosmic eggs.
Fare: € 6,80 in both directions.
8. Ropeway Masada (Israel): The most historic
Masada — ancient fortress built in the mountains of the Judean desert on the orders of Herod the Great in 25 BC. e. Here, surrounded by towering cliffs, the king created for himself a refuge, which were built palaces, the synagogue, bathhouse, warehouses provisions and weapons and even held water.
In ’73 BC. e. Masada was taken by the Romans, who used it as one of its strong points, and after the fall of the Roman Empire on the fortress forgotten until 1862, when archaeologists stumbled on its ruins.
Masada has always attracted tourists, but only after 1971, when it was built cable car, has turned into one of the most visited historical sites of Israel. Prior to this, up to the top of the rock could only be on the so-called serpentine path, which in ancient times used the rebels, and nowadays — archaeologists.
Ropeway leading to the top of the plateau, is considered to be the lowest in the world: its bottom station is located at an altitude of 257 m above sea level, while the top — only 33 m above. Distance from the top of cabin — their runs by cable car only two — overcomes a few minutes, gradually revealing more and more spectacular views of the surrounding desert and the Dead Sea.
Fare: 72 shekels ($ 19) in both directions.
9. The Prague cableway: oldest
Exactly 120 years ago, it was launched in Prague’s most famous cable car road leading to the hill Petrin. To date, it is considered to be the oldest existing cable car in the world . View of Prague from Petrin Hill:
It all started with the fact that in 1889 the Club of Czech tourists went to Paris and was struck by the view of the Eiffel Tower. Petrin hill built a copy of it, and then decided to spend her cable car, which was built in less than a year. Cableway — not suspended, and a carriage on rails, driven to move the rope, — easily lifted to a height of 102 m 50 passengers at a time, the wires rotate the waterwheel.
In 1916, the Petřín lift ceased operation due to the First World War — on a long 16 years. Only in 1932 it started again, replacing the water wheel electric motors and extended up to the current 511 m. The second time, the cable car stopped in 1965, when a landslide destroyed part of the railway track. Prague residents had to wait another 20 years before the famous funicular once again failed to deliver them to the top of Petrin Hill. But since it is included in the urban public transport system and stops only during scheduled scans.
Cost recovery: 24 Czech crowns ($ 1.2).
10. Cableway Complexo do Alemao (Brazil): the cheapest
Favelas of Rio de Janeiro has long been notorious for how the most criminogenic areas of the city, dangerous not only for tourists but also for locals. A move is easiest on foot, as through the local hills and narrow streets public transport almost did not go.
Therefore, Rio authorities have decided to hold over six suburbs of the capital of the Brazilian cable car, which started to work in July 2011. Construction took a year and a half and costs amounted to 210 million reais.
Cableway stretches over 3456 meters in the favelas and the city became the longest cable car in the world. According to ply her 152 cabin capable of carrying up to 3000 people per hour.
Local residents are entitled to two free tickets per day for travel to the Complexo do Alemao, but those who exceed this limit have to pay for the trip 1 Brazilian real — as much as the tourists pay.
The price of travel: 1 Brazilian real ($ 0.5).
11. Cableway Manhattan — an island of Roosevelt: The most movie versions
Despite the fact that New York is situated in flat terrain, the Americans decided to build here and cableways.
Cableway, connecting the 1976 Manhattan Island Roosevelt, it was to function only while the line is being completed subway F. But the locals liked it so much to go on the air that cableways are not dismantled, and after starting the subway. Cableway cemented its status as a full-fledged urban transport, and actually became the world’s first aerial tram .
In 2005, during a transport strike, only cableway continued to transport passengers. But in the same year saw the first and the second incident in 2006 when an air tram cab stuck over the East River. Passengers had to spend on the water for nearly seven hours.
After that transports closed cable car and engaged in its restoration. Five months later, cableway was started again, and all cabins have provided blankets, water, food supplies and even toilet. Aerial Tramway, plying on route Manhattan — an island of Roosevelt, can lay claim to the title of the movie versions: it can be seen in films such as «Nighthawks», «Leon» and even in «Spider-Man.»
Fare: $ 2.5 in the same direction.
12. Cableway Park Zhangjiajie (China): the coolest
Chinese Park Zhangjiajie long been a favorite among tourists. Firstly, it is here, among the Wulingyuan rocks that inspired James Cameron to create a «flying mountain» in the movie » Avatar ,» is Mount Tianmen, and in it — the legendary Cave of Celestial Gate.
Map (clickable, 1280 x 553 px):
Second, you can reach them by cable car, which many travelers, one ride on it, dubbed the «most exciting» in the world. The local cable car is no accident called the «road to heaven»: on some segments of it rises up at an angle of 70 °, crashing straight into the clouds. Welcome to Pandora!
The path to the top takes about 40 minutes, and because of the pressure drop in passengers often lays his ears, and the temperature drops sharply in the cockpit. Often over the park stands a thick fog, which adds to the mystique surrounding landscape.
Those who still dare to overcome the distance of 7455 m, the highest see miraculous cave that has arisen due to the erosion of the rocks in the world. Locals believe that she has supernatural powers. A walk down the Tianmen Mountain by bus on a streamer, which has exactly 99 turns.
The fare is 48 yuan ($ 7.6) in the same direction.