Artillery has always been considered one of the most powerful weapons created by man. Some guns are staggering in their size.
You’ve heard of «The Kid David»? And the «Lazy Greta?» No, this is not the heroes of Western fairy tales, is a record-gun. In this collection — the 14 most large-caliber guns ever created by man. But not always more — is better …
1. Perm «Tsar Cannon», 1869. Barrel length — 4.9 meters, the caliber — 508 mm. Perm giant made in 1869 by order of the Ministry of Marine on Motovilikhinsky chugunopushechnom plant.
When tested Perm Tsar Cannon made 314 shots nuclei and bombs of different systems. As a result, strength tested implements optimized weight propellant charge. When this charge is gradually increased to 120 kilograms of black powder. In a combat charge was set at 53 kg. The firing range was up to 1.2 kilometers.
2. 20-inch Rodman gun, 1864. Caliber 508 mm. Established in the United States during the Civil War.
Since 1861 in the US was launched production rodmanovskih caliber guns 8, 10, 15 and 20 inches. Most cast desyatidyuymovok — 1300 pieces, 15 dyuymovok made 323 and vosmidyuymovok — 213. The most severe — dvadtsatidyuymovyh guns weighing 80 tons, firing 400-kg cores, produced only a few copies, as this caliber has appeared excessive. After the Civil War, the coastal guns Rodman for a long time were in service and were finally written off only in 1905. Many of them have survived to this day.
3. «Lazy Greta» in 1408. Bronze bombard Teutonic caliber of 510 mm.
«Mad Greta» and «Lazy Magda» — the name of the well-known tools of medieval Europe. Both of them were produced in Germany in the XV century. «Mad Greta» had a caliber of 680 millimeters and weighed 8.7 tons. «Lazy Magda» significantly inferior to having a caliber of 355 millimeters and a weight of 1.38 tons. For comparison, cast in 1586 by Russian master Andrei Chokhov king — gun had a caliber of 890 millimeters and a weight (with gun carriage), about 80 tons (40 tons weight of the barrel). However, unlike the German «Frau», from the king — the gun was not made a single shot.
4. Railway Howitzer Shnedera, 1916. Cannon 520 mm gauge was built in two copies, one of which later the Third Reich army used near Leningrad.
5. «Mons Meg» forged instrument was created in 1449 for the King of Scotland of James II. With the caliber of 520 mm, the «Mons Meg» is one of the world’s largest cannons, using stone core. Currently located at Edinburgh Castle (Edinburgh, Scotland).
6. Self-propelled mortar Karl-Gerat 040. The caliber of 600 mm, produced in Germany from 1940 to 1942. One of these took part in the Battle of Sevastopol.
7. Dardanelles cannon, cast in 1464 in the Ottoman Empire. Weight — 18.6 tons, the caliber of 650 mm. Shoot stone balls diameter of 63 cm, in 1807 was used by the Turks against the British fleet, to break through the Dardanelles to Istanbul. In 1866, on the occasion of the state visit, the Turkish Sultan Abdul Aziz presented the «Dardanelles gun» to Queen Victoria.
8. «Mad Greta» in 1382. Cast in Ghent (modern Belgium). gun length is about 5 m, weight — about 16 tons. It consists of 32 barrel iron strips 41 fastened hoop. With the caliber of 660 mm, «Mad Margarita» is one of the world’s largest cannons, using stone core.
9. «Brunswick Metta» in 1411. The gun has not been preserved; according to the historical records, it was about 735 mm caliber. It shoots cores weighing 430 kg.
10. «Dora», in Germany better known as Schwerer Gustav ( «Heavy Gustav»). Superheavy rail gun Third Reich 800 mm caliber. gun parameters are indeed impressive: only be transported unassembled, assembly took 3 days, stood on two railway tracks and 2 more tracks on each side required for maintenance. The calculation consisted of 1,200 people, plus anti-aircraft regiment for air protection.
11. «Pumhart background Stier» Austrian cannon of the XV century. The biggest weapon, made of wrought iron bars. Cannon has survived to the present day, and is now kept at the Military History Museum in Vienna, is publicly available from March to October.
12. «Tsar Cannon» in 1586. Caliber 890 mm. I never fired, although she could.
Guns have replaced the old propellant gun and at first were extremely imperfect due to the low level of development of industry and technology in those years. The first barrels were made of iron and gunpowder — from pasty pulp sallow. Cartridge with charge was a vessel with a handle, it was fixed for a shot in the barrel by special wedges. These cartridges are often torn during volleys and shrapnel struck people about guns. For this reason, before the shot gunners were hiding in shelters or pits.
In the XV century gunpowder learned to do in the form of free-flowing granular mass, which allowed him to sleep in the bore through the bore hole and densely to stamp. Iron stone or pre-wrapped core cloths or rags, and then injected into the gun in a similar manner and sacrificed before contact with the powder. Caliber guns gradually increased. This was due to an increase in the effectiveness of artillery. The guns of large caliber called Bombardier and intended to be used during the siege of the fortress. Masters of the Moscow court cannon was cast a few heavy guns [
13. Mortar Mallet, was developed in Britain in the 1850s. In contrast to the «Tsar Cannon» has been declared unfit for military purposes. Caliber — 914 mm.One gun passed test fired at the site October 19 and December 18, 1857, 21 and 28 July 1858. They were produced in total of 19 shots. When using bombs weighing 1067 kg distance was 2523 m (2759 yards); the flight bomb at this distance — 23 seconds. Rate mortar was about four shots per hour. After all shots fired cannon was damaged, which led to the termination of the test.
14. «Baby David», experimental American mortar caliber 914 mm. It created in 1944.
Despite the appearance of a much more modest than, for example, «Shverer Gustav (Dora)» or «Charles», still holds the record for the large caliber (914 mm or 36 inches) among all modern artillery.