In 1790, it was first recorded meteorite falling to Earth. However, scientists from the Paris Academy of Sciences acknowledged the comic collision of the body with our planet’s surface only after 13 years, first considering the testimony of three eyewitnesses hundreds joke. In this collection — the most sensational meteorite in human history.
Text of National Geographic Russia
1. Goba: The largest of the meteorites found (Namibia)
The largest of meteorites found weigh more than 60 tons and a diameter of about 3 meters. He fell on the territory of modern Namibia supposedly 80,000 years ago. Discovered celestial body relatively recently — in 1920, the owner of the farm Hoba West (Hoba West Farm), bred in the south-west of the country, came across a great piece of iron, plowing one of his fields. In honor of the discovery of the farm and was named.
2. Allende: among the most studied meteorite (Mexico)
Unsuspecting residents of the city of Chihuahua woke up about an hour the night February 8, 1969. They were awakened by the noise and bright flash, which arose as a result of the fall 5-ton meteorite. For tens of kilometers scattered many fragments whose total weight is estimated to be 2-3 tons. The collected pieces «scattered» by the Institute and Museum of the world.
Scientists claim that Allende (Spanish Allende.) — the largest and most studied of the fixed carbonaceous meteorites. The report of the American astrophysicists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, US Department of Energy states that the age of the calcium-aluminum inclusions, which is rich in meteor is about 4.6 billion years, which is longer than the age of any of the planets in the solar system.
3. Murchison meteorite: the most «live» from a meteorite found on Earth (Australia)
Named after the Australian city, near which it fell in 1969, the Murchison meteorite (Murchison meteorite) is considered the most «live» from the found on Earth. The matter is that more than 14 thousand organic compounds that make up the 108-pound carbonaceous rock, including no less than 70 different amino acids.
Research under the direction of Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin of the Institute for Ecological Chemistry in Germany claim that the meteorite contains millions of different kinds of organic molecules, which proves the existence of amino acids outside of our planet. Scientists estimate that the age of the meteorite is 4.65 billion years old, that is, it was formed before the Sun, whose age is estimated to be 4.57 billion years old.
4. Meteorite Sikhote-Alin, one of the largest observed in the fall (Russia)
One of the largest meteorites of the world fell in the Primorye Territory in the mountains Sikhote-Alin in February 1947. Called them a dazzling fireball observed in Khabarovsk and other localities within a radius of 400 km. Iron body weight of 23 tons disintegrated in the atmosphere into a plurality of fragments in a meteor shower.
Debris formed on the surface of the earth for more than 30 craters from 7 to 28 m in diameter and up to 6 meters deep. The largest fragment of the meteorite Sikhote-Alin weighs about 1745 kg. The pilots of the Far Eastern Geological Survey first reported the crash site of a celestial body. Chemical analysis showed 94% of iron in the composition meteorite.
5. ALH84001: The most well-known Martian meteorite (Antarctica)
Under this name is hidden, perhaps the most famous of the 34 Martian meteorites found on Earth. It was discovered December 27, 1984 in the mountains of Allan Hills in Antarctica (mountain name recorded in the three-letter abbreviation of the name). According to studies, the age of the alien body is from 3.9 to 4.5 billion years. The meteorite, which is equal to the weight of 1.93 kg, fell to Earth about 13 thousand. Years ago.
There is a hypothesis, according to which it broke away from the surface of Mars during the planet’s collision with a large space body. In 1996, NASA scientists announced the sensational data, allowing for the existence of traces of life on Mars. When scanning patterns of the meteorite scanning electron microscope revealed the microscopic structures that can be interpreted as fossilized traces of bacteria.
6. Tunguska meteorite: the most «powerful» meteor (Russia)
One of the world’s most famous meteorites hit the Earth in 1908, exploding at a height of 5 — 7 kilometers of Eastern Siberia. The explosion power of 40 megatons of felled trees on the territory of more than 2 million square kilometers area of Stony Tunguska River. His shock wave circled the globe twice, leaving a glow in the sky for several days. In addition, some effects of the cataclysm has completed a powerful magnetic storm, which lasted five hours.
Several Italian scientists hypothesized that the crater may be the Tunguska meteorite Lake Cheko Kimchu on the river, which is located 8 km to the northwest of the epicenter of the explosion.
7. Chelyabinsk meteorite: №2 after the Tunguska (Russia)
According to NASA estimates, Chelyabinsk meteorite — the largest known celestial bodies fall to the ground after the Tunguska meteorite. About the fore on 15 February and do not stop to discuss six months later. Explode in the sky over the Chelyabinsk at an altitude of 23 km, the meteorite caused a powerful shock wave that, as in the case of the Tunguska meteorite, twice circled the globe.
Prior to the explosion the meteorite weighed about 10 tons and has a diameter of 17 meters, and then shattered into hundreds of fragments, the weight of the largest of which reaches half a ton. Space guest who brought the field of international fame, plan to perpetuate as a monument.
Fragment Chelyabinsk meteorite found near Emanzhelinsk. Weight is 112.2 g